Archive for the ‘intensive care’ Category

Treating Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke

While there has been a virtual revolution in the treatment of ischemic stroke thanks to the advent of tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA), the options for reducing the potential for damage in hemorrhagic stroke are more limited. Nonetheless, progress is being made here, too — especially in the area of prevention. In addition, new research provides [...]

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States, among both men and women. It claims more lives each year than colon, prostate, lymph and breast cancers combined. Yet most lung cancer deaths could be prevented. That’s because smoking accounts for nearly 90 percent of lung cancer cases. Your risk of [...]

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Guillain-Barré Syndrome

What is Guillain-Barré Syndrome? Guillain-Barré syndrome is a disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The first symptoms of this disorder include varying degrees of weakness or tingling sensations in the legs. In many instances, the weakness and abnormal sensations spread to the arms and upper body. These [...]

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Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis may vary depending on which type you experience. Acute pancreatitis signs and symptoms include: Upper abdominal pain Abdominal pain that radiates to your back Abdominal pain that feels worse after eating Abdominal pain that’s somewhat relieved by leaning forward or curling into a ball Nausea Vomiting Tenderness when touching the [...]

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Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic Non-Ketotic Coma (HONK)

his extreme metabolic derangement occurs through a combination of intercurrent illness, dehydration and an inability to take normal diabetic therapy due to the effect of illness. It is a potentially life-threatening emergency. HONK is characterised by severe hyperglycaemia with marked serum hyperosmolarity, without evidence of significant ketosis. Hyperglycaemia causes an osmotic diuresis with hyperosmolarity leading [...]

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Summary. Since the initial 1996 American Thoracic Society (ATS) guideline on nosocomial pneumonia, a number of new developments have appeared, mandating a new evidence-based guideline for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), including healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This document, prepared by a joint committee of the ATS and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), focuses [...]

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Safety and efficacy of polymyxin B in multidrug resistant gram-negative severe sepsis and septic shock

Background and Aims: The emergence of multidrug resistant strains of Gram-negative bacteria, especially the lactose nonfermenters like Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, in the intensive care units have prompted renewed worldwide interest in the polymyxins. However, perceived nephrotoxicity has been a major vexation limiting their early and regular use in severe sepsis. This study was conducted to [...]

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Norepinephrine in septic patients—friend or foe?

Norepinephrine (NE) is mostly used to treat severe hypotension. However, NE has potentially adverse vasoconstrictive effects on regional vascular beds of kidney, liver, and gut, with a potential for ensuing organ dysfunction. NE therefore is considered as a last reserve in otherwise refractory hypotension. During sepsis, a loss of catecholamine responsiveness occurs that is often [...]

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Clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock: 2007 update from the American College of Critical Care Medicine*

Background: The Institute of Medicine calls for the use of clinical guidelines and practice parameters to promote “best practices” and to improve patient outcomes. Objective: 2007 update of the 2002 American College of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Guidelines for Hemodynamic Support of Neonates and Children with Septic Shock. Participants: Society of Critical Care Medicine members [...]

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Recommendations for end-of-life care in the intensive care unit: A consensus statement by the American College of Critical Care Medicine

improve the care of intensive care unit (ICU) patients during the dying process. The recommendations build on those published in 2003 and highlight recent developments in the field from a U.S. perspective. They do not use an evidence grading system because most of the recommendations are based on ethical and legal principles that are not [...]

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