Archive for the ‘nephrology’ Category

Ultrasound of Kidney with Hydronephrosis

Hydronephrosis [water - kidney condition] refers to a kidney with a dilated pelvis and collecting system. It can be caused by obstruction of the ureters or bladder outlet. Hydronephrosis can also result from reflux (retrograde leakage of urine from the bladder up the ureters to the renal pelvis. Rarely, some children have hydronephrosis without either [...]

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Uremic Encephalopathy

Uremia describes the final stage of progressive renal insufficiency and the resultant multiorgan failure. It results from accumulating metabolites of proteins and amino acids and concomitant failure of renal catabolic, metabolic, and endocrinologic processes. No single metabolite has been identified as the sole cause of uremia. Uremic encephalopathy (UE) is one of many manifestations of [...]

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