Elective Primary Cesarean Delivery Howard Minkoff, M.D., and Frank A. Chervenak, M.D.

In 1985, the Journal published an article advocating elective cesarean delivery.1 Although it was provocative, the article had little effect on obstetrical standards. At that time, most efforts within the discipline were focused on arresting the escalation of the rate of cesarean deliveries,2 which had increased sharply during the preceding decade. Thus, despite that article, [...]

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Ablatio Retina (Retinal Detachment )

Normal Vision The retina is the nerve cell layer of the eye and acts much like film in a camera. When light enters the eye, it passes through the cornea and lens and is focused onto the retina. The retina transforms the light energy into vision and sends the information back to the brain through [...]

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Can Stem Cells Repair a Damaged Heart?

Heart attacks and congestive heart failure remain among the Nation’s most prominent health challenges despite many breakthroughs in cardiovascular medicine. In fact, despite successful approaches to prevent or limit cardiovascular disease, the restoration of function to the damaged heart remains a formidable challenge. Recent research is providing early evidence that adult and embryonic stem cells [...]

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Antibiotic Breakthrough

Since their invention during the last century, antibiotics have revolutionised healthcare. However, excessive use, over-prescription and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant infections means antibiotics being likened to a lit window in the night that flashes open for just a moment before it shuts again, according to Dr Robert Masterton, executive medical director and consultant microbiologist at [...]

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Breastfeeding Frequency – a Question of Style

Most new mothers are left confused about how often their babies should nurse. Our formula feeding mothers can expect to feed their newborns every 2-4 hours in general (some babies more frequently, others less frequently). Breastmilk is not like formula. Formula is usually made from cow’s milk, which has hard to digest proteins. Because these [...]

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Pacifier Use May be Sign of Breastfeeding Problems

Nursing mothers are often advised to keep pacifiers from their babies in order to avoid early weaning. A new study, however, finds that pacifier use may not lead to early weaning, but rather be a sign of problems with breastfeeding. Researchers from Montreal’s McGill University studied 281 breastfeeding women and their healthy, full-term infants at [...]

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Safety: Radiation Exposure in X-ray Examinations

This information is reviewed by a physician with expertise in the area presented and is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), comprising physicians with expertise in several radiologic areas. What are x-rays and what do they do? X-rays are forms of radiant [...]

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Barotrauma and Mechanical Ventilation

Background Barotrauma is a well-recognized complication of mechanical ventilation.  Although most frequently encountered in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it can occur in any patient receiving mechanical ventilation. In addition, barotrauma can occur in patients with a wide range of underlying pulmonary conditions (eg, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, Pneumocystis jiroveci [...]

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Ultrasound of Kidney with Hydronephrosis

Hydronephrosis [water - kidney condition] refers to a kidney with a dilated pelvis and collecting system. It can be caused by obstruction of the ureters or bladder outlet. Hydronephrosis can also result from reflux (retrograde leakage of urine from the bladder up the ureters to the renal pelvis. Rarely, some children have hydronephrosis without either [...]

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Effects of Carvedilol Therapy on QT-Interval Dispersion in Congestive Heart Failure

In cases of chronic congestive heart failure, QT-interval dispersion is a strong predictor of death. Carvedilol therapy appears to decrease QT-interval dispersion. We investigated whether carvedilol reduces QT-interval dispersion in congestive heart failure and whether this pharmaceutical agent has additional effects on elderly patients. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is increasingly common and entails a high [...]

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